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Nutritional terms we should be acquainted with

Does it ever feel awkward when we see basic words we should know, but we don't; simply because these "words" aren't as basic as we thought they were.


Anyways, this was my plight today. I was going through an article today and I saw a term " RDA", normally I would have guessed  the meaning whether right or wrong. But then, I thought doing the right thing wouldn't hurt. So, i went online and searched for the meaning of "RDA" coupled with other interesting nutrition terms we see everyday, and decided to share them with you guys. By the way, this is the meaning of "RDA"


Recommended Dietary Allowances(RDA):

The amounts of dietary energy and nutrients considered sufficient for maintaining good health by the people of a country.
Other interesting nutrition terminologies are outlined below. Grab a pack of popcorn and enjoy!

                                   

Anabolism:

Process by which complex materials in tissues and organs are built up from simple substances.

Amino acids:

These are the building blocks of proteins.

Amylase:

Any one of several enzymes which effect a hydrolysis of starch to maltose.

Ascorbic acid:

Also known as vitamin C.

Assimilation:

This is the combination of processes to supply cells with nutrients.

Balanced Diet:

A diet containing all essential (macro and micro) nutrients in appropriate proportions that meet our basic requirements.

Balanced ration:

Such a combination of feeds as will provide the essential nutrients in the proper proportions.

Beta-Carotene:

A yellow/orange plant pigment which yields vitamin A by oxidation in the body.

Body Mass Index:

Body weight in relation to height. Body weight in kilograms divided by 2 height in meters.

Blood Glucose (blood sugar):

Is the main sugar found in the blood and the main source of energy for your body.

Calories:

A unit of energy in food.

Carbohydrates:

Are one of the main types of nutrients.

Carotene:

A yellow organic compound that is a precursor of vitamin A.

Catabolism:

The breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones together with the release of energy.

Cholesterol:

Is a fat-like substance that’s found in all cells of the body.

C.U (Consumption Unit):

One unit represents Recommended Dietary Allowance of energy for a sedentary man.

Dehydration:

This is a condition that happens when you do not take in enough liquids to replace those that you lose.

DE fluorinated:

Having had the fluorine content reduced to a level which is nontoxic under normal use.

Diet:

Your diet is made up of what you eat and drink.

Dietary Supplements:

Dietary supplement is a product you take to supplement your diet.

Digestion:

This is the process the body uses to break down food into nutrients.

Electrolytes:

These are minerals in body fluids.

Enzymes:

These are organic substances (proteinous in nature) that speed up chemical reactions in the body.

Empty calories:

Term used for foods that provide only energy without any other nutrient, e.g. white sugar and alcohol.

Enzymes:

Biological catalysts which enhance the rate of chemical reactions in the body.

Essential fatty acids (EFA):

Fatty acids like linoleic acid and alpha linoleic acid which are not made in the human body and must be supplied through the diet.

Fatty acid:

This is a major component of fats that is used by the body for energy and tissue development.

Feces:

The excreta discharged from the digestive tract through the anus.

Fiber:

This is a substance in plants, collective term for the structural parts of plant tissues which are resistant to the human digestive enzymes.

Free radicals:

Highly reactive oxygen-derived species formed in the body during normal metabolic processes.

High-density lipoproteins (HDL):

These transport cholesterol from the extra-hepatic tissues to the liver. They are anti-atherogenic.

Hormones:

Substances produced by a gland (endocrine) which are secreted directly into the blood stream to produce a specific effect on another organ.

Hyperlipidemia:

An increase in the concentration of blood lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol).

Gluten:

This is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley.

HDL:

Stands for high-density lipoproteins.

Lactoferrin:

Minor protein of milk containing iron.

Lactose intolerance:

Disorder resulting from improper digestion of milk sugar called lactose, due to lack of an enzyme, lactase, in the intestinal mucosa.

Lipids:

A technical term for fats, they are important dietary constituents. The group includes triglycerides, steroids, cholesterol and other complex lipids.

LDL:

Stands for low-density lipoproteins.

Macronutrients:

Nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins and fats which are required in large quantities.

Metabolism:

This is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat.

Monounsaturated fat:

This is usually a type of fat is found in avocados, canola oil, nuts, olives and olive oil, and seeds.

Nutrients:

These are chemical compounds in food that are used by the body to function properly and maintain proper health.

Processed foods:

Foods that are produced by converting raw food materials into a form suitable for eating.

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM):

A marked dietary deficiency of both energy and protein resulting in under nutrition.

Refined foods:

Foods which have been processed to improve their appearance, colour, taste, odour or keeping quality.

Saturated fatty acids:

Fatty acid molecules that do not have double bonds; considered to be less healthy.

Satiety:

Feeling of satisfaction after food intake.

Polyunsaturated fat:

This is a type of fat that is liquid at room temperature.

Protein:

A class of nitrogenous organic compound which are essential part of all living organisms.

Saturated fat:

This is a type of fat that is solid at room temperature.

Trans-fat:

This is a type of fat that is created when liquid oils are changed into solid fats, like shortening and some margarines.

Trans-fatty acids:

Are mainly produced during hydrogenation of oils; a few also occur naturally in very small quantities.

Triglycerides:

These are a type of fat found in your blood.    

Fun fact:


Sugary drinks( containing artificial sugar) are the most fattening product in modern diet, they provide empty calories and it's believed to be a leading cause of diseases when taken indiscriminately.

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